Ending Demand: Review of Projects

Global Centurion has conducted a comprehensive review of articles, NGOs, faith-based organizations, projects, books, first-offender programs, codes of conduct and federal, state and and local efforts that focus on demand in the following list.


I. Non-governmental and Faith-based Organizations Focused on Demand

A. The SAGE (Standing Against Global Exploitation) Project

B. Lola Greene Baldwin Foundation

C. Global Centurion

D. TSTOP (Texas Sex Trafficking Obliteration Project)

E. Stop Demand Foundation

F. CHASTE (Churches Alert to Sex Trafficking Across Europe)

G. Umoja

H. Demand Change!

II. Organizations with Projects or Programs Addressing Demand

A. Captive Daughters Films

B. Coalition Against Trafficking in Women- International (CATW)

C. Shared Hope International

D. World Vision

E. Hunt Alternatives Fund

F. Truckers Against Human Trafficking


III. Books, Articles and Papers About Demand

A. Kevin Bales, Understanding Demand

B. Daniel Gustaffson, Human Trafficking and Prostitution: The effect of two different prostitution regimes

C. Bridget Anderson, A very Private Business. Exploring the demand for migrant domestic workers.

D. The European Parliament: Committee on womens rights and gender equality

E. ILO, International Symposium on Gender at the Heart of Globalization.

F. Victor Malarek, The Johns: Sex for Sale and the Men who Buy it.

G. Shared Hope International Review of Demand in Japan

H. Rachel Durchslag and Samir Goswami, Deconstructing The Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights From Interviews With Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex

I. Michelle Willoughby, Demand Deterrence Strategies: International Initiatives to Eliminate Demand for the Sex Trade

J. Child Wise (Australian organisation) Research paper: Who are the child sex tourists in Cambodia?

K. Demand Dynamics, The Forces of Demand in Global Sex Trafficking

L. Lin Lean Lim, Trafficking, Demand and the Sex market.

M. Donna Hughes, Best Practices to Address the Demand Side of Human Trafficking

N. Donna Hughes, The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking

O. The Vienna Forum to Fight Human Trafficking, Background Paper, International Labour Office

P. Ilvi Joe-Cannon, Ed. and Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Primer on the Male Demand for Prostitution

Q. Mohamed Y. Mattar, The Appropriate Legal Responses to the Issue of Demand: A Comparative Legal Analysis

R. International Organization for Migration, Is Trafficking in Human Beings Demand Driven? A Multi-Country Pilot.

S. Sven-Axel Mansson, The practices of male clients of prostitution: influences and orientations for social work.

T. UK Home Office, Tackling the Demand for Prostitution: A Review

U. Bridget Anderson & Julia OConnell Davidson, Trafficking a demand led problem? A multi-country pilot study

V. Migration Letters: An International Journal of Migration Studies, Vol. 3, #1, Apr 2006

W. Bridget Anderson & Ben Rogaly, Forced Labour and Migration to the UK

X. Emily I. Troshynski & Jennifer K. Blank, Sex trafficking: an exploratory study interviewing traffickers

Y. Elaine Peterson, The Mekong Challenge Human Trafficking: Redefining Demand

IV. Federal, State, and Local Efforts to Address Demand

A. City of Atlanta

V. Codes of Conduct

A. Code of Conduct for the protection of children from sexual exploitation in travel and tourism

B. Code of Conduct for Men in the 21st Century, Authored by Brian Iselin

VI. First Offender Programs

The SAGE Project

1275 Mission Street

San Francisco, CA 94103

Tel: (415) 905-5050

Fax: (415) 554-1914

Email: info@sagesf.org


The Standing Against Global Exploitation Project or the SAGE Project is a non-profit organization with the primary aim of bringing an end to the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adults by raising awareness and providing outreach and support to survivors of sexual exploitation.

First Offender Prostitution Program (FOPP)

Founded in 1995, the First Offender Prostitution Program is a collaborative program between the San Francisco District Attorneys Office,the San Francisco Police Department, the San Francisco Health Department, local merchants, and the mental health community. The program includes services to aid girls to permanently exit the criminal justice system and to rebuild their lives free of sexual exploitation, prostitution and abuse; early intervention for women by providing in-custody and out-of-custody assessments, referrals, peer support, rehabilitation, vocational training, and case management for women trying to exit prostitution; and the arrests of male customers (Johns) as well as a John School, which is an educational program for first offenders that takes a real-world, confrontation-style look at the legal, health, and other risks and effects of prostitution.

Portland Prostitution Offender Program

P.O. Box 42393

Portland, OR 97242

Tel: (503) 236-7244

Email: contact@prostitutionrecovery.org


Portland, Oregon was the first city in the country to address the real cause of prostitution, the Johns, by developing an offender treatment program through the court system. The Baldwin Foundation believes in the importance of addressing the demand side of prostitution, and in 2003 made a proposal for a new Johns School which was accepted by the Multnomah County Community and Circuit Courts. The Portland Prostitution Offender program, or John school consists of a six-hour class and is limited to ten people who have been screened by the courts for any criminal record of violence or repetitive crime. At the beginning of the program, participants complete questionnaires regarding their current attitudes and beliefs related to prostitution. The program includes lectures and discussions on the laws related to commercial sex, and the various charges and penalties that accompany a prostitution arrest. Issues such as sexually transmitted diseases, strip clubs and pornography, how prostitution really works, as well as guest speakers and sexual disorders and treatment are also dealt with.

Global Centurion

Tel: (202) 546-8172

FAX: (202) 546-8175

Email: globalcenturion@gmail.com


Global Centurion is a non-profit organization dedicated to eliminating child sex slavery by focusing on investigation, arrest, prosecution, and conviction of the predators and perpetrators. Founded in 2008, this unique demand-centered approach is the link that has been missing in the fight to abolish human trafficking and modern-day slavery. Global Centurion has a three-pronged approach to combating demand including Research and Development; Education, Awareness, and Advocacy on Demand-Related Issues; and Operations. Some initial research on the demographic of predators has been completed, but much more needs to be done. Global Centurion is undertaking a research project to document the case law on child sex tourism and child sex trafficking in every country around the world. The organization is working alongside law enforcement to gather information and evidence that can be utilized against perpetrators in courts of law.


Email: tstop@cwfa.org

Face Book Cause: www.causes.com/tstop


TSTOPs mission is to rescue the victims of sex trafficking in the state of Texas by ending the demand for commercial sex. Victims are the result of supply and demand. If you can eliminate the demand, traffickers have no need to create a supply. NO DEMAND NO VICTIM.

Their project is a multi-pronged statewide project to end the demand for commercial sex. They work in connection with Houston Rescue and Restore Coalition to educate key target groups who can play an integral part in demand reduction and elimination of sex trafficking in Texas

Stop Demand Foundation

P.O. Box 41-400, St Lukes

Auckland 1030

New Zealand

Tel: 64-9-846-4693

Email: action@stopdemand.org


Stop Demand Foundation, trading as Stop Demand, is a non-profit, incorporated charitable trust which aims to promote a world free of all forms of sexual violence against, and sexual exploitation of, children with a particular focus on challenging the demand for sex with children.

Stop Demand:

Raises public awareness on the extent of all forms of sexual violence against children

Calls for global action to stop all forms of sexual violence against children

Addresses demand issues within the child sex trade and other forms of sexual violence against children

Works with the government, inter-governmental and non-governmental agencies to stop sexual violence against children

Mobilizes the community, in particular the male community, to stop all forms of sexual violence against children


PO Box 983, Cambridge CB3 8WY

United Kingdom


CHASTE, was founded in 2004, and has since that time been working with women trying to escape the clutches of traffickers and has opened up new possibilities for life, as they recover from the deep and lasting trauma which this form of sex slavery entails. The CHASTE Round Table on housing has inspired the opening of three faith funded safe houses in 2006 and early 2007. CHASTE has initiated a Round Table on Demand to deal with the issue of why trafficking finds a market in the UK.

John’s Offender Program

Salt Lake City, UT

Confidential Voicemail: (801) 891-1344

Email: April@umojatraining.com and Debra@umojatraining.com


Since 2000, Umoja has provided a 10-week class to reduce recidivism among men caught soliciting sex from a prostitute. Umojas curriculum allows its facilitators to guide class participants to critically evaluate their behavior and its sources and identify appropriate changes. Classes are interactive, with participants encouraged to share perspectives on how the topics relate to them personally. Participants also complete homework assignments each week, which they discuss at the beginning of every class, to encourage introspection and change. Each class begins with a feelings check-in, which helps participants assess their reactions to life events, understand how those feelings impact their behavior, and develop skills to communicate them appropriately with others. The class operates under a set of ground rules, which all participants agree to follow.

Demand Change!

Phone: 0207 840 7108

Email: nisan.kesete@eavenhousing.co.uk




Demand Change! is the UKs first campaign challenging the demand for prostitution. It is a joint initiative by Eaves and OBJECT. Demand Change! calls on the Government to fulfill multiple international and domestic obligations to tackle demand for prostitution. Current government proposals to criminalize the buying of sex from a person subject to force are a welcome step towards holding those who purchase sexual acts accountable for their actions. However, the proposed legislation does not go far enough in terms of tackling the demand for prostitution which fuels sexual exploitation, violence and abuse. Demand Change! therefore calls on the Government to follow the Nordic model which decriminalizes those who sell sexual acts while criminalizing those who purchase them. Demand Change! believes that it is only through tackling demand holding the buyers of sex accountable for their actions and challenging attitudes towards the buying of sexual acts that we will be able to end the sexual exploitation, violence and abuse experienced by many women and girls in prostitution.

Captive Daughters Films

3500 Overland Ave. #110-108

Los Angeles, CA 90034-5696

Fax: (310) 815-9197

Email: cdfilms@yahoo.com


Captive Daughters Films creates films that promote human rights activism. CDF is a subsidiary of the nonprofit Captive Daughters, whose purpose is to educate the public about sex trafficking, as well as other human rights abuses, through creative media. Captive Daughters is the first anti-trafficking group established in California and focuses solely on ending the sexual bondage of women and children. Captive Daughter addresses the fact that little attention has been given to the demand side of sex trafficking and the need to fully understand the root causes and conditions that create a need for a supply of trafficked women and children. It is by understanding the dynamics of demand that legal and political policies necessary to control and end this practice can be developed. Captive Daughters has held two successful conferences on the subject of demand:

Demand Dynamics: The Forces of Demand in International Sex Trafficking, 2003

Pornography: Driving the Demand for International Sex Trafficking, 2005

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women – International

Norma Ramos, Esq.

Executive Director

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women-International

PO Box 7427

Jaf Station

New York, NY 10116 USA

+1 212 643 9896 (fax)

Email: info@catwinternational.org

The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women-International (CATW) is a non-governmental organization that promotes womens human rights by working internationally to combat sexual exploitation in all its forms. Founded in 1988, CATW was the first international non-governmental organization to focus on human trafficking, especially sex trafficking of women and girls.

Project to curb male demand for prostitution
The goal of this project is to combat sex trafficking and prostitution by discouraging demand. This is done by educating boys and men about issues relating to prostitution and trafficking as well as supporting the enforcement of laws penalizing the buyers.
Baltic Countries

  • To strengthen existing networks working against sex trafficking.
  • To promote the Swedish model of legislation which prohibits the purchase of sexual services and recognizes prostitution as a form of male violence against women.
  • To conduct media trainings and public awareness campaigns in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and to work with journalists to write articles and press releases on the harmful consequences of legally recognizing prostitution as work.
  • To develop and implement creative new strategies to confront the male buyers of women in prostitution.

Mexico and India

  • To educate legislators, NGOs and others about the Swedish model of legislation which prohibits the purchase of sexual services and recognizes prostitution as a form of male violence against women.
  • To train local criminal justice practitioners, NGOs and others to implement policies and programs that penalize demand.

The Philippines and Mexico

  • To conduct substantive school educational programs in the Philippines and Mexico, targeting young boys in communities where prostitution flourishes, to discourage the demand for sexual exploitation and to address male sexual attitudes, stereotypes and practices.
  • To change the sexual attitudes and practices of boys and men that result in the sexual exploitation of women and children by employing various educational tools, including a video entitled First Time, which critiques how young men go through male rites of passage by using women in prostitution.
  • To use popular educational materials such as flyers and flipcharts detailing causes of prostitution and trafficking, and comic books portraying the stories of women who have been in prostitution, including the role of male buyers.
  • To organize workshops and boys camps in selected regions to educate young boys and men about the harm of prostitution and trafficking, mens role in perpetuating sexual exploitation, and mens potential role in being catalysts for change.
  • To campaign for a Philippines anti-prostitution law specifically addressing the demand

Shared Hope International

P.O. Box 65337

Vancouver, WA 98665

Email: savelives@sharedhope.org


Shared Hope International is a non-profit organisation and exists to rescue and restore women and children in crisis. They are among the leaders in a worldwide effort to prevent and eradicate sex trafficking and slavery through education and public awareness.

The Defenders USA
Founded in June 2006 as an initiative of Shared Hope International, the Defenders USA is a coalition of men and a campaign by men, to men and for men that are opposed to all forms of commercialized sex. Defenders believe that pornography, prostitution, escort services, strip clubs, peep shows, and erotic massage parlors all contribute to the commercial sex industry, a market that produces nearly 100,000 300,000 exploited victims a yearthe majority of which are women and children. Through various Defender campaigns, our objective is to provide care for exploited victims through our restoration centers. In addition, we strive to end the demand for sexually explicit material by educating and equipping men to speak out against this destructive trade.

World Vision


34834 Weyerhaeuser Way So.

Federal Way, WA 98001

Tel: 1-888-511-6548

Mailing Address:

P.O. Box 9716

Federal, WA 98063-9716

Email: stopchildtourism@worldvision.org (for this program)

Web: http://www.worldvision.org/content.nsf/learn/globalissues-stp

World Vision is a Christian humanitarian charity organization dedicated to working with children, families, and their communities worldwide to reach their full potential by tackling the causes of poverty and injustice.

The Child Sex Tourism Prevention Project
As part of World Visions commitment to protecting children, it has joined forces with national governments, law enforcement agencies and other organizations to combat child sex tourism through the Child Sex Tourism Prevention Project. World Vision has implemented this project in Cambodia, Thailand, Costa Rica, Mexico, Brazil and the United States. Its three-pronged strategy includes; deterrent message, developing a targeted media campaign to deter would-be sex tourist; law enforcement assistance working with the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to help identify child sex tourists; and prevention programs, preventing children from being drawn into the commercial sex trade through interventions like education, advocacy and the creation of other means to make a living.

Hunt Alternatives Fund

Lina Nealon

Program Manager, Demand Abolition

625 Mt Auburn Street

Cambridge, MA 02138

Phone: (617)-995-1900

Fax: (617)-995-1982

Washington DC Office (The Initiative for Inclusive Security program):

2040 S St, NW

Washington, DC 20009

Tel: (202)-403-2000

Fax: (202)-299-9520

Email: information@hunteralternatives.org


Hunt Alternatives Fund was established in 1981 by Helen and Swanee Hunt and advances innovative and inclusive approaches to social change at the local, national, and global levels. The fund operates out of Cambridge, Massachusetts and focuses on strengthening youth arts organizations in Eastern Massachusetts, supporting leaders of social movements across the country, advocating for the full inclusion of all stakeholders in peace and security processes around the world, combating the demand for modern-day slavery, and inspiring women to political leadership.

Demand Abolition Program
Demand Abolition supports the movement to end modern-day slavery by combating the demand for sex trafficking through:

  • Research: conducting, collecting, and disseminating research on demand reduction best practices at the local, national, and international levels.
  • Convening: bringing together key actors within and outside of the modern abolitionist movement to energize allies and focus attention to the buyers of sex.
  • Advocacy: educating policymakers about the links between sex trafficking and prostitution and encouraging the implementation of laws, policies, and programs that curb demand for the commercial sex trade.

Truckers Against Trafficking
The trucking industry and individual truckers are invaluable in the fight against this heinous crime. This site has been set up to inform truckers and other travelers of the basic issues involved in human trafficking and a summary of ways you can help. Truckers against human trafficking invite you to travel through this website and learn how you can join this worthy cause and save lives.

Community Approach to Reduce Demand
Worcester, MA
Funded by Cathy Boisvert in 2007 and run by the local YMCA in partnership with Worcestern Police Department, district court, and probation department, this daylong educational course incorporates presentations by a public health nurse, a public official, a social worker and a suvivor of forced prostitution

Understanding Demand: Kevin Bales
In Understanding Demand behind human trafficking, Kevin Bales structures his arguments through a marketing perspective. He begins by reviewing characteristics of trafficking and factors that predict trafficking before moving on to a discussion of why people traffic other human beings. He highlights the moral economy traffickers ascribe to that allows them to view trafficking victims as persons without rights, and that allows consumers to accept this status. Bales then analyzes the Unique Selling Point (USP) of trafficked people these USPs include their low cost, malleability, approximation to the real thing, exoticism, and enjoyment of power. He suggests that to extinguish demand, we must counter the moral economy of traffickers and consumers by raising public awareness and privileging the victims understanding of the situation. Bales also advocates for the reduction of USP factors by decreasing the malleability and gullibility on the part of victims and increasing legal possibilities for emigration to work. As Bales views trafficking as an economic crime, he determines that changes in the cost/benefit structure will force traffickers to reevaluate the cost of using trafficked people. He also writes that better research along the product chain and about how buyers and sellers find each other is necessary.

Human Trafficking & Prostitutions: The Effect of Two Different Prostitution Regimes- Daniel Gustafsson
In Human Trafficking and Prostitution: the effect of two different prostitution regimes, Daniel Gustafsson outlines his ambitions for his PhD project at Aalborg University. Gustafsson discusses factors that drive trafficking and the scarcity of research on demand factors and the operations of organized crime organizations. For the purposes of his research, he uses the definition of trafficking set out by the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and stresses the need to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling, and for organizations to use the same definitions in order to promote more effective cooperation. Gustafsson addresses the controversy around prostitution and trafficking whether all prostitution is sexual slavery or whether it can be legitimate sex work. He writes that current research has been hindered by this question, and by relying on secondary data and relatively few studies. He plans on doing a comparative case study on the effect of Danish and Swedish prostitution regimes on the activities and targeting practices of human trafficking organizations. In order to create new primary research, Gustafsson will conduct interviews with organizations and individuals across the trafficking spectrum. He hypothesizes that he will find that the higher cost of operating a human trafficking organization in Sweden will mean a lower level of criminal involvement and a lower number of victims, while higher demand and lower risk in Denmark will lead to a higher level of involvement from organized crime and a higher number of illegal bordellos and victims.

A Very Private Business: Exploring the Demand for Migrant Domestic Workers – Bridget Anderson
Bridget Anderson analyzes the demand in the UK for migrant domestic workers in her article A very private business: exploring the demand for migrant domestic workers, as well as how their perceived foreignness and other factors affect their desirability as employees. Domestic workers are defined as low-skilled workers, which makes migration problematic. Anderson writes that the demand for domestic workers has been satisfied by cobbling together a range of immigration statuses, as well as of course by illegal employment. Private households are not constrained by the Race Relations Amendment Act when choosing employees, making them free to choose domestic workers on the basis of their nationality and perceived national characteristics. They often feel like they are doing the worker a service by providing them with an opportunity, and that they need the opportunity/would appreciate it more than a UK national would. Another important factor in choosing to employ a migrant is the issue of retention; immigration legislation gives employers control over employment, and has in fact led to families requesting specific nationalities that are unable to run off because of the terms of their visas.

The European Parliament Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality
The European Parliament Committee on Womens Rights and Gender Equality proposes that member states of the Council of Europe ratify the Convention against Trafficking in human beings under the following considerations. With respect to recent international and domestic legislation, the European Parliament suggests effective trafficking legislation aimed at addressing the victims, demand, and criminals involved. Specifically, the European Parliament recognizes that criminals of drug or arms trafficking receive lighter punishments than those trafficking women and children. Furthermore, the Parliament recognizes the growing consumer demand as a contributing factor in the forced labor sex trade. Thus, the European Parliament recommends certain initiatives in order to combat trafficking, with a particular emphasis on women, including victim assistance programs consisting of medical, legal, and social assistance, as well as residency and compensation. In order to curtail demand, the Parliament recommends providing information in order to spread awareness, especially to customers and through developing a European Union anti-trafficking day. Also recognizing how the legalization of prostitution is a factor in encouraging the buying of sex, the Parliament identifies the increased vulnerability and harm for legalized prostitutes in the sex industry. The Committee focuses on prosecuting traffickers and preventing trafficking. The Committee also initiated correlation and communication amongst countries, especially due to the nature of sex trafficking and sex tourism.

Trafficking, demand and the sex market
The International Labour Offices background paper on Fighting human trafficking: the forced labor dimensions, presented at the Vienna Forum to fight Human Trafficking in 2008, begins by reviewing the concept and current knowledge of forced labor. The paper then moves on to discussion of demand factors that drive forced labor, and asks how consumer behavior can be taken into account when formulating policy. It then presents some ideas as to how to prevent forced labor, such as corporate social responsibility programs and similar initiatives, and asking both workers and employers organizations to incorporate discussion of human trafficking into their agendas. The ILO calls for private sector action to be backed by effective legislation and law enforcement, and has begun training programs for labor inspectors and law enforcement agencies on the identification and prevention of forced labor.

The Johns: Sex for Sale and the Men Who Buy It-Victor Malerek

Victor Malareks sequel to The Natashas, The Johns: Sex for Sale and the Men who Buy It, explores the life of the Johns or the group of men commonly identified as sex purchasers. At the very heart of demand, the Johns represent the mass of men involved in the purchasing of female victims as though they are commodities, putting a price on their sexual worth. Malarek explores the worldwide sex market including the organizations and customers that propel sex trafficking, focusing on America, Europe, Brazil, Thailand, Phnom Penh, St. Petersburg, and Costa Rica. Malareks work adds to demand-focused research by exploring the very consumer that supports this illegal industry.

Shared Hope International

Shared Hope International analyzes the current trends of the sex industry throughout Japan in a detailed report which includes specific locations that are known for high levels of commercial sexual activity. The report discusses the trends of the commercial sex market in Japan which include sex clubs, teahouses, love booths, Soaplands, gay clubs, escort services, and compensated dating. All of these various forms of promoting sexual services are linked to the sex industry, and trafficking. Traffickers rely on lucrative recruitment and advertising, especially of foreigners from Thailand, the Philippines, Cambodia, Europe, and America, in order to perpetuate this crime. Often, women are brought into Japan through a 6-month entertainment visa or a fraudulent marriage. Japans cultural acceptance of the sex industry leads to an open sex market, with love hotels and sex clubs in heavily populated areas, often woven in with local attractions, such as a movie theatre. This report details the profile of the victim, buyer, and the common methods used in the Japanese sex industry.

Durchslag & Goswami’s Craigslist Interviews

Durchslag and Goswami deliver preliminary findings from interviews conducted in 2006-2007 with men who buy sex, recruited from an advertisement in Craigslist (interviews were held in public locations for the safety of interviewers and to assure participants that they were not involved in a police sting). These findings include average age (39), race, education, income, whether they had a regular sex partner, age when men first bought sex (average 21), and frequency of buying sex, among many others. Respondents used Craigslist more than any other website to solicit sexual services. Durchslag and Goswanis preliminary recommendations include creating a prevention curricula for youth, educating community residents on how to deter demand in their neighborhoods and social networks, and creating effective intervention initiatives for men already buying sex.

The Willoughby Report

Willoughby highlights the often forgotten fact that prostitution exists because there is the demand for it. The first part of this report gives a description of various demand deterrence strategies utilised worldwide while the second part focuses in greater detail on the most successful of these strategies. This report also lists specific strategies that have been implemented domestically by states in an effort to punish the johns.

Child Wise Research

Due to the increasing problem of sex trafficking within Cambodia, Dr. Federic Thomas and Leigh Matthews with Child Wise conducted research on the demand of sex trafficking specifically in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, and Poipet. Research was conducted through interviews and focus groups in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Shianoukville. Researchers interviewed a local NGO that works with street children in Poipet. Findings indicate three different types of child sex tourists within Cambodia: the pedophile, the virginity-seeker (a common attribute of the Chinese males visitors), and situational offenders, or those that do not necessarily look for children, but due to circumstance elicit sex with children. The two methods used by these sex tourists are to approach children, such as on the street, or through the use of networks that lead to access to children. Researchers found boys were commonly sought after through the direct approach and girls through networking. Through collaboration with the Cambodian government and local non-governmental organizations the research produced certain recommendations; including spreading awareness of sex tourism through campaigns, a strong relationship between the Cambodian Ministry of Tourism and private tourism companies, as well as the necessity of further research.

Demand Dynamics-Captive Daughter’s Conference

Demand dynamics: the forces of demand in global sex trafficking was a conference held in 2003 in Chicago, organized by Captive Daughters and the International Human Rights Law Institute of DePaul University College of Law. Panels were held on the following topics: 1. What do we know about the people who make up the demand side of sex trafficking? 2. How do consumers of sex trafficking find their supply and how is demand manipulated and maintained? 3.What governmental policies or practices enable the actions of those who create demand? 4. What can be done to interfere with and ultimately eliminate demand? Moderators included Kristen Houser of the Nebraska Domestic Violence Sexual Assault Coalition, Laura Lederer, then with the United States Department of State and current VP for Policy and Planning at Global Centurion, Vidyamali Samarasinghe, American University, and Normal Hotaling, Standing Against Global Exploitation (SAGE).

Trafficking, Demand and the Sex Market – Lin Lean Lim

Trafficking, demand and the sex market was presented at the International Symposium on Gender at the Heart of Globalization by Lin Lean Lim who argues that a prohibitionist or abolitionist approach to end demand in the sex market is not a viable solution. Lim identifies three levels of demand recognized by the ILO: consumer demand, employer demand, and third parties involved in the process. Lim writes about the many sectors in the sex market and how it flourishes because it is protected and supported by corrupt politicians, police, armed forces and civil servants, who receive bribes, demand sexual favours and are themselves customers of the sex establishments or may even be partners or owners of the establishments. The effects of socio-cultural institutions on demand and the sex market are also examined. Lim argues that simply trying to curb demand will not work because making the sex market illegal may drive it underground and make victims more difficult to access, criminalization of prostitution would prevent victims from seeking help, anti-prostitution laws would violate a persons ability to go into an occupation of their free choice, and that curbing demand will not solve the economic and social bases of prostitution. Lim concludes by saying root causes of demand and supply have to be addressed by anti-trafficking measures.

Best Practices to Address the Demand Side of Human Trafficking – Donna Hughes

As previous researches on the causes of sex trafficking and prostitution have heavily focused on the supply side, Hughes shed light on the demand side of this global issue by addressing a wide range of buyers attitude and behavior as well as introduces various strategies to combat the demand. With analysis of different studies, she presents the mens motivation to purchase sex acts which include; lack of interest or inability to establish an intimate, long-term relationship with a woman; a symbol of masculinity; and ability to control prostitutes viewing them as commodities. Hughes also presents false beliefs of prostitution among the the buyers; women voluntarily become prostitutes, therefore its not wrong and doesnt hurt anyone; women dont have a pimp and work by themselves; and women enjoy having sex with them. Although there have been many programs and legal frameworks established which focuse on the demand side, such as car confiscation programs, the Swedish law which exclusively criminalizes the buyers, Johns Schools, community-based, and faith-based programs, Hughes calls for a comprehensive approach and more research on men and the buyers of prostitution

The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking – Donna Hughes

Hughes defines sex trafficking, specifically looking at what constitutes demand including the men, exploiters, the state, and culture. Hughes breaks down the business of trafficking and prostitution by exploring a transnational business model of sex trafficking, the income gained from transnational and domestic sex trafficking, and the prosecution of domestic sex trafficking. She also explores the domestic sex traffickers, which include the pimps, madams, and mama sans. Hughes explains the markets in which these victims are sought which consist of markets for commercial sex acts, sexually explicit performances including live internet feeds, sexually explicit performances, and the production of pornography. She also details the demand for specific groups, such as racial, ethnic, or language capabilities, migrant worker market, virgins, young girls, or older women. Hughes explains how to put exploiters out of business; specifically looking out shutting down the sex markets in the Republic of Korea, destroying the market in Sweden and closing establishments in Nassau County, New York, as well as stopping the street trade. She also addresses the role of the state in their approaches to prostitution and the impact of state policies, including visa policies in Canada, Germany, Japan, Cyprus, and Taiwan, as well as asylum procedures. Hughes concludes with recommendations to combat the demand for victims of transnational sex trafficking.

Fighting Human Trafficking: The Forced Labor Dimensions – International Labour Office

The International Labour Offices background paper, Fighting human trafficking: the forced labor dimensions, presented at the Vienna Forum to fight Human Trafficking in 2008, begins by reviewing the concept and current knowledge of forced labor. The paper then moves on to a discussion on demand factors that drive forced labor, and asks how consumer behavior can be taken into account when formulating policy. It then presents some ideas as to how to prevent forced labor, such as corporate social responsibility programs and similar initiatives, and asking both workers and employers organizations to incorporate discussion of human trafficking into their agendas. The ILO calls for private sector action to be backed by effective legislation and law enforcement, and has begun training programs for labor inspectors and law enforcement agencies on the identification and prevention of forced labor.

The Primer on the Male Demand for Prostitution – Ilvi Joe-Cannon

The Primer was developed by Ilvi Joe-Cannon to assist European anti-trafficking projects with challenging the legalization and decriminalization of prostitution industries and focusing on demand, and has been adapted for more general use by authors from CATW. The authors outline demand for prostitution as one of the main factors driving human trafficking, as the greatest number of victims are women and children trafficked for the purpose of prostitution. They write that legalizing prostitution means sanctioning the sex industry and expanding the problem of human trafficking, and tackle other questions arguments used when promoting the legalization of the sex industry.

The Appropriate Legal Responses to the Issue of Demand: A Comparative Legal Analysis – Mohamed Y. Mattar

Professor Mattar discusses some of the legislative measures intended to discourage demand for human trafficking, such as the criminalization of buying sex but not prostitution itself, the criminalization of both buying and selling sex, and the Protect Act, which prohibits travel of US citizens and residents who travel abroad to engage in sex tourism and increases the penalty for doing so. He also raises the issue of misconduct of UN peacekeepers and their immunity from local prosecution as a problem for discouraging demand. Mattar also touches on matchmaking organizations, which he believes should be criminally liable for trafficking-related activities. He encourages the maximizing of our legal approach to stripping, massage parlors, and escort services, making operators of entertainment sex liable for involvement in trafficking, while taking care not to define these activities as labor.

Is Trafficking in Human Beings Demand Driven? A Multi-Country Pilot

Bridget Anderson and Julia OConnell Davidson research the demand of human trafficking in select European and Asian countries through funding by the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sida and Save the Children Sweden. This report explains the research of the pilot study focused on demand for prostitution and domestic work. The researchers specifically analyzed private households and the consumer demand for sexual services. The research indicates there are certain factors which are pertinent to the prevalence of human trafficking. The first factor is that these markets lack effective regulation, which leaves it not only possible, but profitable to use forced labor. Secondly, there is a continuous supply of exploitable labor, and lastly, the influence of social norms in regards to employers and clients encourages human trafficking. This report analyzes the conceptual and political problems of the demand side of human trafficking, research methods of the pilot study, the sex sector (including social conformity, demand, and attitudes), domestic work, as well as conclusions and recommendations.

Trafficking – a Demand-led Problem?

In a Save the Children report, Bridget Anderson and Julia OConnell Davidson research the demand of human trafficking by defining the politics of trafficking and the problems immediately associated with trafficking. This report focuses on the demand side of trafficking, and the researchers map and explain this element of trafficking. In terms of the commercial sex sector, the researchers explore prostitution, consumer demand for sexual services, third party exploitation, and the role of the state. The researchers also discuss domestic work, including paid domestic work and the demand for domestic services. They specifically analyze the demand for trafficked persons working in private households as well as third party explotations, and the states role. In conclusion, Anderson and Davidson explain the differences between demand of employers versus demand of consumers for forced labor, and argue that trafficking is not solely demand driven, as supply and demand are interrelated and help to shape one another.

Tackling the Demand for Prostitution – UK Home Office

The United Kingdom Home Office issued a report reviewing a recent six month review concentrating on how to reduce the demand for prostitution, with conclusions and recommendations. The six month review included collaboration with the Police, the Crown Prosecution, and organizations who work with victims of prostitution. Specifically, the research focused on academic research of sex buyers, Ministerial visits to Sweden and the Netherlands, an examination concerning enforcement and prosecution in England and Wales, as well as a review of demand centered programs in nine other countries. Recommendations include prohibiting the purchase of sex from trafficked victims, on the street, or in public locations. Additionally, the Government will continue its current prostitution initiative to prevent involvement of children and adults, offer support for those already involved, and justice for those who control and exploit individuals. The review also points to a policy change to criminalize those who are buying sex from a person who is being controlled, regardless of whether the perpetrator knew the victim was being controlled or not. Other recommendations include raising awareness through a campaign targeted specifically at sex buyers, prosecuting persistent soliciting even as a first time offense, implementing an anti-kerb crawling campaign to target street prostitution, allowing police to restrict access to premises linked to sexual exploitation for up to three months, and develop partnerships amongst police, criminal justice, and volunteer organizations in order to effectively carry out these recommendations.

The Practice of Male ‘Clients’ of Prostitution: Influences and Orientations for Social Work – Sven-Axel Mansson

Mansson analyzes research from Scandinavian countries about the clients of prostitutes and compares them with studies from other countries. He addresses four main concerns: who the clientele of prostitutes are, what there are motivated by, how to interpret their motivations contextually, and how masculine practices in prostitution affect social work. A little more than one out of ten men in Scandinavian countries have paid for sex at some point, while four out of ten Spanish men have bought sex, making them the most frequent buyers of sex in Europe. A Swedish study revealed that men who pay for sex have had numerous sexual partners, contradicting the assumption that clients are motivated by loneliness and sexual need. Nearly 70% of Swedish sex buyers reported their last paid sex encounter took place abroad. Motivations for buying sex include: the fantasy of a dirty whore, another type of sex, no other women, consumer of sex (sex as a saleable product), and expressions of strong antifeminist notions. Mansson writes that men must participate in making changes to reduce the demand for prostitution in order to truly produce societal change.

The Overlap Between Trafficking of Human Beings and Smuggling of Migrants

Peixoto argues that the combination of individual aspiration to migrate, severe migration policies, and organized intermediary agents leads to a surge of dynamic modalities in channeling flows. He also writes about the overlap between trafficking of human beings and smuggling of migrants and that they exist in a continuum of dynamic situations. Peixoto believes that understanding the institutional framework and intermediary agents strategies will lead to a better understanding of trafficking in general. Agents involved include potential migrants and families, state officials, smugglers and traffickers, and labor employers. Peixotos considerations result from a 2004 study on the trafficking and smuggling of immigrants in Portugal.

Sex Trafficking: An Exploratory Study Interviewing Traffickers – Emily I. Troshynski & Jennifer K. Blank

Troshynski and Blank present the methodology used in an exploratory study interviewing human traffickers. They discuss the difficulty involved in conducting interviews with human traffickers, and the new complexities caused by increasingly sophisticated trafficking networks. They write that little is known about people who participate in these networks and their motivations, as well as the structure of trafficking. The interviews were conducted with minimal structure, with several thematic questions throughout the interview process, allowing the researcher to follow up on answers and ask questions that had not been prepared in advance. The main question asked was: How do human traffickers make sense of their positions in the illegal market of trafficking in women for prostitution? Other thematic categories were intended to discover the participants motivations and justifications for being involved in human trafficking, and their perceptions of the individuals they trafficked. Interviews were conducted with three participants, as two other participants had to back out at the last minute.

Troshynski and Blank present the methodology used in an exploratory study interviewing human traffickers. They discuss the difficulty involved in conducting interviews with human traffickers, and the new complexities caused by increasingly sophisticated trafficking networks. They write that little is known about people who participate in these networks and their motivations, as well as the structure of trafficking. The interviews were conducted with minimal structure, with several thematic questions throughout the interview process, allowing the researcher to follow up on answers and ask questions that had not been prepared in advance. The main question asked was: How do human traffickers make sense of their positions in the illegal market of trafficking in women for prostitution? Other thematic categories were intended to discover the participants motivations and justifications for being involved in human trafficking, and their perceptions of the individuals they trafficked. Interviews were conducted with three participants, as two other participants had to back out at the last minute.

The Mekong Challenge – Human Trafficking: redefining Demand – Elaine Peterson

Elaine Pearsons report on behalf of the International Labour Organization-International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (ILO-IPEC) in Bangkok with the Mekong Sub-regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Children and Women (TICW) discusses the demand for labor trafficking. The report examines the trends of employers and third party entities as well as the situations through which people are trafficked into the labor field. Research is conducted in Cambodia, Yunnan province in China, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Thailand, Viet Nam. Thailand is looked at specifically, as a destination point for migrant workers. Demand in labor trafficking has not yet been researched and is therefore the aim of this report, in respect to employer demand, third party demand, and consumer demand. This report provides a comprehensive definition of demand, Thailand and vulnerable workplaces, as well as recommendations.

Stephanie Davis,Policy Advisor on Womens Issues

Email: stdavis@atlantaga.gov

55 Trinity Avenue

Atlanta, GA 30303

Tel: (404) 330-6856

Fax: (404) 658-7361

Dear John Campaign

Dear John is an award-winning public education campaign to end the commercial sexual exploitation of children, with Mayor Shirley Franklin, the Juvenile Justice Fund and a wide-range of supporters. In November 2006, through a public/private partnership with Edelman, a public relations firm in Atlanta, the campaign was designed to bring awareness to the issue among Atlanta residents, legislators, law enforcement and others in order to affect real change, and to highlight progress being made, including increased fines against Johns from $50 to $10,000, stiffened charges from a misdemeanor to a felony and mandated minimum sentences for Johns found guilty of commercially sexually exploiting children. The campaign seeks to educate and activate audiences to help stem the problem, which also results in children withdrawing from schools and their families, entering into poverty and becoming more susceptible to health risks.




First Offender Programs

More commonly and colloquially known, Johns Schools are a type of educational intervention where johns are offered john school as an alternative to a criminal prosecution. The first comprehensive program was developed in San Francisco by the late Norma Hotaling. Norma, a survivor of prostitution, founded the organization SAGE (Standing Against Global Exploitation) in 1992. It was a resource, advocacy, and counseling center for those trafficked into or trapped in prostitution. Four years later, she helped the San Francisco District Attorneys Office create a first-of-its-kind class for johns caught soliciting prostitutes. The First Offender Prostitution Program, now replicated in more than 40 U.S. cities, as well as dozens abroad allows first offenders to have their charges dropped if they pay a fine and participate in course taught by sex trafficking-experts, prosecutors, police, neighborhood activists, and health educators who discuss the downsides of prostitution. Participants also hear from victims of trafficking; examine their own motivations for buying sex; and learn about the nature and scope and harm of trafficking.

Below is a list of the cities in the United States that offer a first offender program:

1. Brooklyn, NY 2. Buffalo, NY
3. Charlotte, NC 4. Chicago, IL
5. Cincinnati, OH 6. Columbus, OH
7. Dayton, OH 8. Denver, CO
9. Dover, DE1 10. Fife, WA
11. Fresno, CA 12. Grand Rapids, MI
13. Hartford, CT 14. Indianapolis, IN
15. Jackson County, KS 16. Lakewood, WA
17. Las Vegas, NV 18. Lenexa, KS
19. Los Angeles, CA 20. Madison, WI
21. Minneapolis, MN 22. Nashville, TN
23. New Hanover County, NC 24. Norfolk County, VA
25. Omaha, NE 26. Orange County, NY
27. Phoenix, AZ 28. Pierce County, WA
29. Pittsburgh, PA 30. St. Paul, MN
31. Salt Lake City, UT 32. San Diego, CA
33. San Francisco, CA 34. Seattle, WA
35. Tacoma, WA 36. Tampa, FL
37. Topeka, KS 38. Tucson, AZ
39. Waco, TX 40. West Palm Beach, FL
41. Worcester, MA 42. Wyandotte County, KS
43. Ypsilanti, MI